Lhasa is a beloved city for locals in Tibet, with an altitude of 3600 meters. It has a mild climate, which makes it one of the most comfortable cities in the China Tibet Autonomous Region.

The city of Lhasa has a high level of development, featuring numerous well-designed residences, a limited number of luxury hotels, and both a train station and an airport. Additionally, there are two well-built highways in the area. The population of Lhasa was estimated to be around 3.66 million people in 2023.

1. Potala Palace

For travelers in Tibet, the top recommendation for sightseeing is the Potala Palace. Potala came from Sanskrit,  the land of compassion Buddha Avalokiteshvara, also known as Boddhisatva Chenrezig in Tibetan.  To adjust to the altitude, we scheduled a tour of the Palace on the second day. Before climbing the stairs, we suggest that travelers engage in some exercise. Photography is not permitted within the Palace.

The view of Lhasa from the Potala Palace is breathtaking. The Palace has three entrance gates and one exit gate. It is not allowed to bring liquid or matches inside the Palace, but they can be left at the central gate and retrieved after the visit. Water can be purchased at the summit of the Palace. When touring the Potala, travelers must carry their passports. We highly recommend visiting the Potala Palace.

History of Potala Palace.

The Potala Palace is situated on a red hill called Marpori, which resembles a lying elephant, symbolizing good luck. In the 7th century, the Potala Palace served as a place of meditation for the 33rd King Srongtsen Gampo, who is believed to be the incarnation of the merciful Buddha Chenrezig. The Potala Palace now showcases the King's meditation cave, adding to its beauty and significance.

Despite Potala Palace being constructed prior to Jhokang Temple, King Srongtsen Gampo received a prophecy from the statue of Chenrezig in Jhokang Temple. The prophecy instructed him to send an escort to retrieve the sandalwood statue of Chenrezig from the border between Nepal and India to promote the spread of Buddha Dharma in Tibet.

Potala Palace and Lhasa

Photo: The height of the Potala Palace is 117 meters.

 The Legend of the Sandalwood Statue of Compassionate Buddha Chenrezig.

The statue naturally appeared from the sandalwood in the deep forest border between Nepal and India, along with three other statues of compassion Buddha Chenrezig.

The location of the four statues in the year 2018.

  1. Jowo Wati in the Kyirong Phakpalhakang Temple.
  2. Jowo U Kang in the Buddhanath at Kathmandu, Nepal.
  3. Jowo Jamali at the border between India and Nepal where it appeared.
  4. Jowo Lokisharawa in the Potala Palace. Jowo means lord or master in the Tibetan language. 

King Srongtsen Gampo started the construction of Potala Palace, including the Phakpa Lhakang temple for the statue of Jowo Lokisharawa Chenrezig. 

Facts of Potala Palace during the 7th Century.

  1. Potala Palace was first built on the ninth floor. 
  2. The main chapel is Phakpa Lhakang, and all others are the Palace of the King.
  3. During that time, Potala was home only to the King. 
  4. The palace of the Queen and Princess is at the Chakpori, opposite the hill near Potala Palace. 
  5. It is said that there was a floating bridge between the two palaces during that time. 
  6. King Srongtsen Gampo has six wives. Four Tibetans: 1. Mongsa Tricham from central Tibet Duilong was known as the highest-ranking Queen. She started the first meditation retreat center in Tibet at Drakyerpa during the 7th century. Later many great masters meditated at Drakyerpa including the Maha Guru Padmasambhava, Maha Guru Atisha, Maha Guru Shantarakshita, and Maha Guru Lalung Paldor.  Two other wives outside Tibet were Wencheng, a princess from the Tang Dynasty, and Princess Brikuti from Nepal. 
  7. Princess Brikuti has helped in the construction of Potala Palace. Especially the wall paintings in the Potala Palace. 
  8. Later, Princess Wencheng was welcomed in front of the Potala Palace by King Srongtsen Gampo. 

In the 9th century, Potala Palace suffered from natural disasters such as fire caused by thunder, leaving only the Phakpa Lhakang temple and the Chogyal Drupuk (the king's meditation cave) intact. In the 17th century, the reconstruction of Potala Palace was initiated by the 5th Dalai Lama.

White Palace and Red Palace.

The 9th-floor Palace, also known as the White Palace, was constructed by the 5th Dalai Lama over a period of 5-6 years. In the late 17th century, the 5th Dalai Lama passed away secretly due to the construction of the Potala Palace. His disciple Sangay then built the Red Palace on the 13th floor, which took approximately 12 years to complete. The Red Palace was specifically constructed for the Golden Tombs of the 5th Dalai Lama. Today, visitors can explore the tombs of the 5th Dalai Lama located on the ground floor of the Potala Palace.

Lhasa has two major attractions, namely the Potala Palace and Jokhang Temple. Tourists visiting the Potala Palace are charged an entrance fee of 200 Chinese Renminbi during the summer months (May to October) and 100 Renminbi during the off-season (November to February). The tickets for the Potala Palace must be reserved four days in advance.

2. Jokhang Temple

Jowo is a Tibetan term that means lord or master, and Jo is a shortened version of it. This name is typically used when referring to precious Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. Khang, on the other hand, means temple, chapel, or building. The Jokhang Temple, which was built for the statue of Buddha Shakyamuni at the age of 8, Jowo Akshobhya, dates back to the 7th century during the reign of the 33rd King Srongtsen Gampo. The statue's Tibetan name is Jowo Mikyo Dorje, and it was brought to Tibet by Princess Brikuti, who was from Nepal.

History of the Statue of Jowo Mikyo Dorje.

According to the legend, the origin of the statue dates back to the time of the third Buddha, Woesong Chenpo, also known as Dipamkara and Marmezey, in India. A devoted follower of Buddha Dharma, King Tritri, sponsored the statue's construction to promote the teachings of Buddha during the time of the present Buddha, Jowo Shakyamuni, who is also known as the fourth Buddha, based on a prophecy. The statue is called Buddha Jowo Mikyo Dorje.

Photo: Statue of Buddha Shakyamuni, 12 years old, in Jokhang Temple.

History of another Statue during the time of King Tri tri.

The Nepalese Princess Brikuti brought the Tritri Jampa statue to Tibet. It depicts the future Buddha Maitreya, also known as the 5th Buddha. The statue has a connection to the past Buddha Woesong and King Tritri in India. King Tritri considered the Tritri Jampa shrine as his main meditation deity. The Jokhang Temple houses the statue of future Buddha Tritri Jampa on the first floor, following the main chapel of the Buddha Shakyamuni shrine.

History of Jokhang Temple during the 7th Century.

In the 7th century, Jokhang Temple was once a lake called Wotang Tso. Princess Brikuti consulted Princess Wencheng, an expert in architecture, on the location for building a temple to house the Buddha Jowo Mikyo Dorje statue. Princess Wencheng suggested that the most suitable location for the temple would be the area where the Wotang Tso Lake was located.

Challenges faced in constructing the Jokhang Temple.

Princess Wencheng threw her ring into the Wotang Tso Lake to remove evil spirits believed to reside there. This resulted in a miraculous event, where a stupa emerged from the middle of the lake as a sign of good fortune. Another method to remove obstacles involved only using white goats to fill the first soil on the lake. After many positive signs, the temple was named Rasa Trulnang Tsuklhakang, which translates to "Goat and Soil miraculous temple." Today, the temple contains a blessing from the white goats in the form of Jowo Rama Karmo, which appears as the face of a goat.

The specialties of the Jokhang Temple.

There are three distinct architectural designs present in Jokhang Temple.

  1. Pagoda-style golden roof with architectural design from the Tang Dynasty.
  2. Wall and wood paintings from Newari in Nepal. 
  3. Stone walls from the local Tibetan style. 
  4. Jokhang Temple faces Nepal to the west.
  5. There are valuable statues inside Jokhang Temple.

Location of the Buddha Jowo Mikyo Dorje.

During the 9th century, the Jokhang Temple in Tibet experienced changes that resulted in the replacement of the statue of Buddha Jowo Mikyo Dorje with the one purchased by Princess Wencheng from Tibet. The Jowo Shakyamuni statue, brought to Tibet by Princess Wencheng from Tang, is now the primary shrine in the Jokhang Temple. Meanwhile, the Nepalese Princess Brikuti's statue of Buddha Jowo Mikyo Dorje can be found at the Ramoche Temple, which has fewer pilgrims but is still considered a place of great blessings.

Present-day Jokhang Temple.

  1. Jokhang Temple is located around 1km from the Potala Palace.
  2. There is a big square in front of the Jokhang Temple.
  3. There are two entrance gates and one exit gate. 
  4. Jhokang Temple is one of the only temples in Tibet with statues of many great masters from different schools of Buddhism.  Nyingma School, Kagyu School, Kadam School, Sakya School, Shiji School, Jonang School, and Gelug School. 
  5. The first floor is the main chapel of the statue of Buddha Shakyamuni at the age of 12th, which was bought in Tibet by Princess Wencheng.
  6. The first floor also has many other Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. 
  7. The second floor is the 8th manifestation of Maha Guru Padmasambhava and King  Srongtsen Gampo with his consorts. 
  8. On the third floor are the female protector, Pel Lhamo, and the female frog face protector, Betong's chapel. 
  9. Bhakor Street surrounds Jokhang Temple.

Several centuries ago, some exceptional masters visited the Jokhang Temple.

  1. King Srongtsen Gampo 
  2. Princess Monsa Tricham 
  3. Princess Brikuti 
  4. Prince Wencheng
  5. King Trisong Deutsen 
  6. Maha Guru Rinpoche
  7. Maha Guru Jowo Je Atisha
  8. Maha Guru Sakya Pandita
  9. Maha Guru Ra Lotsawa
  10. Maha Guru Tsongkhapa 
  11. Maha Guru Drukpa Kunley
Jokhang Temple Rainbow

Photo: In front of Jokhang Temple

Legendary story from the first Tibetan pandit, Sakya Pandita.

During a visit to the Jhokang Temple, the esteemed Sakya Pandita encountered the four Guardian Kings conversing near the chapel of Buddha. Upon noticing the master's approach, the two southern kings promptly assumed their duty with stern expressions. Conversely, the two northern kings failed to notice Sakya Pandita's arrival and were caught smiling while chatting.

Maha Guru Tsongkhapa offered Ugen's head ornament. The Trulku, which represents the fully ordained monk form of Buddha Shakyamuni, is the central statue in the Jokhang Temple. After Maha Guru Tsongkhapa offered the Rig Nga Ugen head ornament, the statue was transformed into Longku, which symbolizes the completely pure Buddha form.

The Jokhang Temple, located in Lhasa, is a popular attraction for both Buddhist and non-Buddhist visitors who have reported feeling a powerful spiritual presence. Local Tibetans primarily visit in the morning to receive blessings.

3. Sera Monastery

Se means rosebush, and Ra means surrounded by. Sera Monastery was built in 1419 by the great scholar Jamchen Choeje Shakya Yeshi at the request of his great master, Je Tsongkhapa. The monastery is located in the north of Lhasa city.

History of Sera Monastery.

Je Tsongkhapa, the founder of the Gelukpa school in Buddhism in Tibet, was born in 1357 in Amdo Tsongkha, eastern Tibet. During his teenage years, he traveled to central Tibet to gain knowledge of Buddhism. After studying with over 100 great masters, he became a wandering Yogi, mastering both Sutra and Tantra. When he retreated to the mountains above Sera, some disciples found it difficult to locate him for days. Above the Sera monastery, there were two retreat areas known as Sera Utse and the Choeding Gang retreat area, where Je Tsongkhapa spent several years meditating, writing Dharma, and instructing his followers.

Colleges in Sera Monastery.

There are 32 sections in Sera Monastery, with three leading colleges.

  1. Je Dratsang College.  (Sutra College) 
  2. Mey Dratsang College.    (Sutra College) 
  3. Ngapa Dratsang College.  (Tantric College) 

In Je Dratsang and Mey Dratsang, students will be taught the fundamental teachings from the five essential texts based on Buddha Shakyamuni. The four segments of tantric teachings that stem from Buddha Vajradhara will also be comprehended by the students. Buddha Vajradhara is the tantric manifestation of Buddha Shakyamuni, which demonstrates the immense compassion of Buddha Shakyamuni.

The specialty of Sera Monastery.

  1. Sera Tamdrin - Horsehead Buddha.
  2. Sera Jig Jey Bullhead Buddha.
  3. Thukjey Lhakhang Compassion Temple. 
  4. Assembly hall.
  5. Sera monks debate.
  6. Sera Stupa. 
  7. Sera Book Shop.
  8. Sera Lingkor. 
  9. Sera Utse and Sera Choeding Gang retreat area.
  10. Sera Monastery Teahouse.

Photo: Sera Tamdrin Horsehead Buddha

Sera Tamdrin - Horsehead Buddha.

The Hayagriva, also known as Sera Tamdrin Buddha, embodies the compassion of Buddha Chenrezig in a fierce form. Its origins can be traced back to Je Kunkyen, who was a disciple of Je Jamyang Choeje, the founder of Drepung Monastery. Je Kunkyen's parents were devout followers of Tamdrin Buddha in the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism and insisted that he continue to worship Tamdrin Buddha as his primary deity, even if he followed teachings from other schools.

Je Kunkyen constructed the Tamdrin Buddha statue at Je College in Sera Monastery, which is considered one of the three precious Tamdrin statues in Tibet. The other two statues can be found at Samye Monastery and Von Tamdrin near Tsetang. Je Kunkyen was inspired to build the Tamdrin Buddha temple in the same spot after witnessing a few brown crows dissolve into the rosebushes and receiving a sign of Tamdrin Buddha's blessing. The Sera Tamdrin Buddha holds great significance and is highly valued, serving as the primary shrine of Je College for the benefit of all sentient beings.

Sera Jie Jey - Yamantaka Bullhead Buddha.

Yamantaka, a fierce manifestation of Wisdom Buddha Manjushri, is a significant deity in the Geluk school. The Jegjay Buddha situated at Sera monastery is believed to possess a warm heart, indicating its association with Yamantaka. Using small mud balls, Je Jamchen Choeje created the statue, which contains 100,000 Yamantaka mantras in each ball. It was blessed by the renowned Je Tsongkhapa himself. The Sera Yamantaka Buddha is a vital shrine located within the Tantric College.

Thukjey Lhakhang Compassion Temple.

Thukjey Lhakang, a temple devoted to the Compassion Buddha, can be found on the Assembly Hall's second floor. The Buddha statue is of great worth as it was once the primary deity of JowoJe Atisha Dipamkara, the Kadampa School's founder. In Tibetan culture, the Compassion Buddha is known as Chenrezig. Sera Monastery regards this temple as a place where desires can be fulfilled.

Assembly Hall.

During the 17th century, King Lhasang built the Assembly Hall in Mongolia, which is home to two large statues of the future Buddha Maitreya as the main focal point. The Assembly Hall also showcases many impressive wall paintings and shrines devoted to Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.

Photo: Sera Monastery Monks Debate 

Sera Monks Debate.

To observe the monks' debates, the perfect spot is the Sera monastery in Lhasa. These debates happen every weekday from 3 pm to 5 pm and offer a great chance to enhance your patience and wisdom. These talks are seen as a vital part of the training of the monks.

Sera Stupa.

At the Sera monastery, two immense stupas can be found. These structures are constructed to commemorate the teachings of Buddha and to gain merit, which holds great importance in Buddhism.

Sera Book Shop and Sera Lingkor.

At Sera Bookshop, there are numerous books available in the Tibetan language that have been passed down from ancestors, and they are sold at an affordable price. One can witness the scenic view of Sera Monastery and Lhasa City by embarking on the Sera Lingkor hike, which spans approximately 4 km.

Sera Utse and Sera Choeding Gang Retreat Area.

Situated on the hill, above the Sera monastery, is a place that was once used as a retreat area by many eminent Tibetan masters, including Je Tsongkhapa and his two distinguished disciples, Kedrup Je and Gyaltsap Je.

Sera Monastery Teahouse.

At more affordable rates, the tea and food are quite satisfactory. The presentation should be less elaborate than that of a high-end eatery. The tea house located in Sera Monastery provides an excellent opportunity to interact with the indigenous Tibetan population.

4. Norbulingka Palace

The Summer Palace of Dalai Lama is known as the Jewel Garden or Norbu Lingka, which means "Jewel Garden" in Tibetan. It is a popular picnic spot for local Tibetans. The Palace was constructed in the mid-18th century by the 7th Dalai Lama, who was born in Litang town in eastern Tibet's Kham region. The 6th Dalai Lama predicted the birth of the 7th Dalai Lama through his poetry, in which he requested the white crane to lend him its wings so that he could visit Litang and return soon. Later, the 7th Dalai Lama was born in Litang and later traveled to central Tibet. He constructed the first Palace at Norbulingka, known as Kelsang Podrang Palace.

Kelsang Podrang Palace

The name Kelsang means "Prosperous." Kelsang Gyatso, the 7th Dalai Lama, constructed a palace named after himself, Kelsang Palace. The primary shrine inside the palace is dedicated to Buddha Shakyamuni and the Buddha of three families. Visitors can also view horse-drawn carts and various types of vehicles that were used by the 7th to the 13th Dalai Lama. The palace is situated near Norbulingka Zoo.

Chensal Podrang Palace

The term Chensal signifies being favored. The construction of the Palace was carried out by Thubten Gyatso, the 13th Dalai Lama. The primary focus of the Palace's shrine is the Thangkas, which depict the female Buddha, known as Jetsun Drolma or Tara in Sanskrit. The Palace is situated close to the main entrance gate.

Tsokyil Podrang Palace

The name Tsokyil signifies being situated in the center of a lake. The construction of the Palace was undertaken by the 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso. The primary place of worship within the Palace is dedicated to the benevolent Buddha Chenresig, who is depicted with a thousand arms and eyes. The Palace is situated facing the Takten Migyur Podrang Palace.

Photo: Takten Migur Palace 

Takten Migur Podrang Palace 

Takten Palace means eternal and was constructed by the Dalai Lama. It comprises of three stories and features approximately 60 rooms. The primary shrine within the Palace is the gilded throne of the Dalai Lama, as well as personal and meeting rooms that display stunning wall paintings and golden and silver statues of Buddhas. Takten Palace is the latest and largest Palace situated within Norbulingka. The modern design of the bathroom and shower room is adorned with a large radio, while some of the electric bulbs in the rooms are sourced from England. The Palace boasts of a magnificent garden and is located across Tsokyil Palace.

Zoo of Norbulingka

The Zoo is home to many different animals, such as bears, Blue sheep, Musk deer, Monkeys, peacocks, chickens, Deer, parrots, wolves, foxes, and Rabbits. At the Norbulingka Palace, visitors can enjoy a week-long display of Tibetan Opera during the Shoton Yogurt festival. Tibetans often have picnics at the Norbulingka Palace during the summer, where they can appreciate the peaceful surroundings filled with the sounds of birds and the fragrance of flowers. The Norbulingka Palace is known for its tranquility and is considered one of the most peaceful palaces in the world.

5. Drepung Monastery & Nechung

Dampa Hill in the western part of Lhasa is where Drepung can be found. Among the Gelukpa sect, Drepung monastery is one of the largest. The primary shrine in the Drepung monastery is the Shrine of Future Buddha Maitreya. Located beneath the Drepung monastery is the Nechung nunnery, which features a giant statue of Guru Rinpoche as the central shrine for Disney.

6. Ramoche Temple

During the 7th Century, King Songtsen Gampo constructed Ramoche Temple, which was intended to house the statue shrine of Buddha Shakyamuni. This particular statue was brought to Tibet by Princess Wencheng. Later on, another statue of Buddha Shakyamuni was brought to Tibet by Princess Brikuti, and it was also kept at Ramoche Temple. This shrine is considered to be one of the most significant Buddhist sites in the world because the statue is believed to be approximately 2600 years old. Ramoche Temple is situated close to the Tromsikang market.

7. Pabonka Monastery

Before the construction of the Potala Palace and Jokhang Temple, Pabonka was already considered a palace. Visitors can still explore the small monastery and meditation cave that King Songtsen Gampo once used in Pabonka. For those who enjoy hiking, the day trip from Pabonka Monastery to Dode Valley is a great option.

8. Ani Tsenkong 

The Ani Tsenkong nunnery can be found in close proximity to the Jokhang Temple. In the past, it served as a site for meditation for numerous esteemed predecessors. Even today, visitors can explore both the diminutive nunnery and the meditation cave. Ganden is named after the Tushita heaven, where the future Buddha Maitreya, presently a bodhisattva, resides. Ganden monastery is one of the three largest Gelugpa school monasteries near Lhasa. The two others are the Sera Monastery and the Drepung Monastery.

9. Ganden Monastery

Ganden monastery is located in Takze county, around 60km from Lhasa towards the east, at an altitude of 4300 meters.  Ganden is a lovely retreat area that means joyful remains. Je Tsongkhapa, the founder of the Gelugpa school of Buddhism in Tibet. While resting at the Woka Choelong retreat area, Je Tsongkhapa achieved a prophecy to establish the Ganden monastery in the southwest direction. In 1409, he founded the Ganden monastery and retreat area, where he stayed for many years, teaching Dharma and practicing solitude retreats. Je Tsongkhapa passed away at Ganden Monastery, and his gold and silver tomb is well preserved there. The name Gelug means positive karmic path, and it's the tradition followed by the Ganden monastery.

Photo: Ganden Monastery

Ganden Tripa Golden Throne Holder

The renowned Ganden monastery is well-known for the golden seat holder of Ganden, which has been occupied by three main holders. The first of these was Je Tsongkhapa, followed by Gyaltsab Je and Kedrup Je, who were both important disciples of Je Tsongkhapa. The remarkable thing about the Ganden Tripa is that anyone can hold the position if they possess great wisdom, but achieving this level of mastery requires at least forty years of dedicated study and practice in the Mahayana Buddhist tradition.

The majority of those who held the position of Ganden Tripa were between the ages of fifty and sixty. Some wise individuals became Ganden Tripa after twenty years of diligent study and practice of Mahayana Buddhism. A Tibetan proverb states that if a mother's son possesses wisdom, the golden throne of the Ganden Tripa is left unoccupied. The main assembly hall allows visitors to observe the beauty of the Golden Ganden Tripa throne. The two most notable relics of the monastery are Je Tsongkhapa's burial site and the golden throne of the Ganden Tripa. The monastery also has a chapel dedicated to Maitreya Buddha known as the Jamkhang.

Ganden Lingkor Hike Route

Ganden Monastery can be found atop Wangbori mountain, offering travelers the opportunity to admire the beauty of the surrounding hills and gaze upon the distant valley villages as they pass by the river. I recall taking two Singaporean travelers on the Ganden Monastery Kora Lingkor route and hearing them exclaim "wow" every few steps, which gave me the motivation to share this stunning hike with more travelers.

For those traveling with children who may grow bored of visiting monasteries, I highly recommend the Ganden Kora hike, which has also proven to be a crowd-pleaser. The 5-6km hike takes approximately 1-2 hours to complete at an altitude of around 4500 meters. As many tours in Tibet tend to focus on traveling by vehicle for extended periods of time, a hike at Ganden Monastery is a fantastic alternative for adventurous travelers.

10. Two well-constructed highways

There are two excellent highways called Ning Lha Highway and Lha Ri Highway. The first one connects Lhasa to Nyingchi, while the second one connects Lhasa to Shigatse. These highways have reduced travel time by approximately 3 hours.

11. Airport and Train Sation.

The distance between Lhasa and Gonggar Airport is approximately 60km and can be reached by car in about 1 hour and 20 minutes. On the other hand, Lhasa train station is located 15km away from the city and can be reached by car in approximately 20 minutes.

12. Accommodation and Restaurants.

Three hotels have a five-star rating. Additionally, there are numerous hotels with three or four stars. Many restaurants are available in Lhasa that serve local Tibetan, Chinese, Nepali, Indian, and Western cuisine. Furthermore, there are over 500 coffee shops in Lhasa. More information about accommodation and restaurants in Lhasa.

13. Conclusion

Lhasa means heaven in Tibetan. It's one of the most breathtaking places in Tibet. Spending a few days in Lhasa is a great way to adjust to the altitude before heading to other higher-elevation destinations. There are so many must-see sites in Lhasa, and we'll keep this article updated to make it super easy for you to plan your trip. The Lonely Planet considers Lhasa to be a mandatory tourist destination.

We suggest adding Potala Palace and Jokhang Temple to your travel plans. If you have any recommendations to enhance the article, please share them in the comments section, as we would greatly appreciate them. If you are considering a trip to Tibet, kindly send us an email. info@tibettravelers.com 

Written By :Tenzin

Jun 26, 2023


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